» SOLUTION of LESSON 1 EXERCISES:

1.1
zì:r\ja, à:bja:, dù:njo7:, tSò7ka:, br\jà:, là:jba:, gwà:sa:, tà:wta:, dé2Sa:, hà:Sa:, mjà:Sa:, Sà:a:, Sà:j, swà:, wà:ka:, r\à:wma:, fjà:, mjà:a:, fì:a:.
1.2
Kufi neas, bromi tala, tali bromas, kunki vissa, kui šas i šâs, gogi dyas, va-mina i kleka, stari pia, dili peas i vena, drimi tova, bali va-lissa.
1.3
1) Smaki šavama, 2) kolkapa i kolkala, 3) duydapa in ili pyuka, 4) dî dyas i niri pafakas, 5) trokama!, 6) sti medas, 7) mivyas i vyalas, 8) skufi vuvalas, 9) snabi bifra i…loi missas?

LESSON 2


DIRECTIONS, PERSONAL PRONOUNS and VERB 1

DIRECTIONS
Directions (so-called separate) correspond basically to our prepositions (also adverbial ones). They are easy to identify and memorize since always end with -u and are all monosyllable. The principal directions are 17:

u* : of; ku : up, on, over; gu : as, like
tu : to, towards; wu : along; fu : in front (of)
nu : from, since; vu : for; bu : behind; yu : according to, depending on
ru : in; hu : between, among; smu : across, through
su*°: with; pu : down, under, beneath; chu : by means of, through
šu : because of, owing to; du : in the middle/center of

The position of the directions generally follows and is bound to the term in order to obtain a better cadence of the sentence
*u is always replaced with a simple accent on the last syllable of the word in case of words with at least 2 syllables both the singular and the plural;
you can translate the walls of the house with tonkas megà. Not always the accent can be added to proper names.
It remains -u and must not be replaced in case of monosyllabic word; eg.: the taste of food is translated with yuma krau (kra + u).

*°the opposite, “without”, becomes misu.

PERSONS

The directions bind to the personal pronouns in the same way of nouns, adjectives or verbs, as seen in the previous chapter. For your convenience we provide a table that lists the "cases" for the individual pronouns bound to the directions: of belonging (which corresponds to the genitive case), donation (dative case):

PERSONS (Table)
ma: I
ya: you
da: he
va: she
ga: oneself
mas: we
ya: you
das: they
vas: they (f.)
BELONGING








mau: my
yau: your
dau: his
vau: her
gau: of o.s. (own)
maus: our
yau: your
daus: their
vaus: their (f.)
DONATION








mavu: to me
yavu: to you
davu: to him
vavu: to her
gavu: to o.s.
mavus: to us
yavu: to you
davus: to them
vavus: to them (f.)

The belonging direction follows the term to which it refers; eg.: ma ne mega yau (I see your house).
Examples of binding with other directions
Ex.: to/towards you : yatu (ya + tu), constructed by ya: you + tu : to/toward; other ex.: dachus (through –by means of- them), vanu (from her), mahus (between us), dafu (in front of him), yashu (because of, owing to you), dadus (in their midst), etc.
In complex sentences in which a word is governed by a direction and also tied to a person declined in the direction of belonging, just remember that the person declined in the direction of belonging follows the word.
Eg: the son of your neighbor = ipa nenkà yau, the color of their eyes = rula neàs daus; he with the car of his wife = da platasu vilvà gau; the hat on my head = poka kopaku mau.


VERB 1

The present absolute, corresponding to the infinitive, always ends with –e.
The verb has conjugations and cases, that in Lara are called directions of person and ten.
The first one is very easy since you only need to place the person before the verb following the absolute form (present or in other tens); ex.: ma kae (I bring), or das kae (they bring).


EXERCISE 2.1

Now, you can start translating some complete phrase hoping that all previous contents are clear and...well assimilated!
…So let's go! It's time really to start speaking LARA!

By consulting the mini-dictionary at the end, translate in english the following phrases:

1) Ma le megatu
2) Das lube trela gau
3) Mas kre sizi jabas
4) Da ble yavu i ya mi lapye!
5) Ofaka yate yuva pukà
6) Anda Lilyà u Yesos Kristos, Ipa Tumà (from “Gospel of Mark”)
7) Da de loi nikas kopaku
8) Ya kune sa mavu ni ma mi nete!
9) Dalasu ma ne ya mabu
10) Va i čoka gau vame ji grumi tripamas!
11) Mèa dahus ge suza
12) Ya fele dafu ni mi vuye nita dau
13) Syupa goryi ofà, hutya i syuvi lerupa šane fotadas šoratu (from a Tourist Guide of Rome, about "Piazza di Spagna")
14) Pritas pane vizi klabas i mami manyas tawtàs gau
15) Matreda tyate mavus drua savasiu
16) Ya vi tayte yeta megà!
17) Gema megà dau bari tuše hofanu
18) M'ale yasu ai ya kae ani lata mau
19) Ei tovas ivà maus ale tu lilla
20) Ma lape danus bani bidas hei gama yau samà
21) Ma enke yavu flepa sepi, kigi Itali i Lari tegasu “kistavu” tegasu pai i yai veka potokà, eku gimi netevu talla vyedàs ki ski dake ani drua (This is maybe a bit difficult! It's taken, modified, from the Lara Stele that you can find in the home-page…but don't crib!)


Translate in Lara the following phrases:

1) I eat an apple with you
2) Important changes happen when you don't expect them
3) Poor persons live on the road and no one help them or understand their problems
4) Do you want (translate with: You want…?) from me any suggestion for your room?
5) Victims of the road increase every year
6) The powerful of the world do a few for the serious problems of humanity
7) Your father wish for you a better life for sure
8) They show us our mistakes but don't think at their own ones.
9) Fast hares with their long feet pass the slow slugs during the competition
10) Grandmothers tell beautiful fairy-tales to our and your grandchildren (diminut.) remembering (translate with:...with the remembrance) their own childhood


Mini-Dictionary

Several words are intentionally not present in the mini-dictionary English-Lara since they just appeared in the Lara-English dictionary or are deduceable by them.

Lara-English


ale = to come
anda = beginning
ani = any
bani = too much
bari = always
bida = comment
ble = to speak
čoka = dog
dake = to need
dala = mirror
de = to have
drua = exercise
ei = also
eku = above all, most of all
enke = to propose
fele = to walk
flepa = text
fotada = photographer
gama = conduction
ge = to want
gema = door
gimi = better
gorya = monument
grumi = old
hei = about, with regard to
hofa = wind
hutya = obelisk
ipa = son
Itali = italian (adj.)
iva = daughter
jaba = fruit
kae = to take
ki = that, what, which
kigi = respective
kista = training
klaba = conquest, achievement
kopa = head
kre = to eat
kune = to explain
lape = to hear
lapye = to listen
Lari = Lara (adj.)
lata = bag, purse
le = to go
lerupa = church (from “lere”: to pray)
lilla = party
Lilya = Gospel
lube = to love
mami = big
matreda = student
manya = result
mega = house, home
mi = no, not
mèa = no one
nete = to understand
ni = but
nika = hair
nita = glance
ofa = stairs, stairway
ofe = to scale, to climb
pai = during
pane = to dream
potoka = grammar
prita = champion
puka = mountain
sa = this (noun)
sama = life
šane = to attract
savasi = today
ne = to see
sepi = compared
sizi = sweet
ski = sure
šora = square
suza = ice-cream
syupa = combination
syuva = rose (flower)
talla = construction
tawta = effort, fatigue
tayte = to remember, to recall
tega = tongue or language (native)
tova = friend
trela = work, job
tripa = monk
Tuma = God
tuše = to beat, to slam
tyate = to expose, to expound
vame = to seem
veka = learning
vizi = important
vyeda = phrase, clouse
vi = never
yai = after, after that
yate = to reach, to arrive at
yeta = key
yuva = top, peak



English-Lara


apple = duma
beauty = lala
change (to) = bite
childhood = ulla
competition, match = stefa
do (to), make (to) = pe
every = emi
fairy-tale = kela
fast, quick = zapi
father = mapa
foot = taka
grandmother = gruva
grandson (m) = karapa
happen (to) = meye
hare = fyapa
help = kipa
humanity, mankind = pena
increase (to), rise (to) = ole
long = wai
mistake = missa
pass (to), overtake (to) = moe
person = dya
poor = mizi
powerful = mai
problem = merka
road, street, way = fela
room = tepa
seriousness = voza
show (to) = kanye
slowness = ploa
slug = šiga
story, tale, narration = blaka
suggestion = keya
thought, thinking = tia
victim = hunti
wait (to), expect (to) = vipe
when = ami
wish, desire = goma
world = rava


Lesson n. 3 will be dedicated to some important words that have peculiarities (ki, ka, sa e ta), to the verb “to be” and to verb-tenses in the active form.
Also solutions to lesson n. 2 exercises will be shown.