INTRODUCTORY NOTE
The Lara Language course is structured by 8 very brief and easy lessons, by the end of which you are completely able to write and speak the language assisted by a dictionary!
Every single lesson is furnished with grammar concepts (potoka = grammar in Lara!), in a simple way for a quick learning, and exercises to carry out. Every time, at the succeeding lesson, solutions of the exercises will be shown. Let's go!...


LESSON 1


ALPHABET and WORDS


ALPHABET


The Lara alphabet consists of 27 Latin letters. Transcription and pronunciation are as follows:

. . . Xsampa (Example)
a = /a:/ (like in “car”)
b = /b/ (“ “ “band”)
č (or ch) = /tS/ (“ “ “challenge”)
k = /k/ (“ “ “cold”)
d = /d/ (“ “ “dark”)
e = /e2/ (“ “ “elevation”)
f = /f/ (“ “ “figure”)
j = /Z/ french g (“ “ “garage”)
g = /g/ (“ “ “goal”)
h = /h/ aspirate h (“ “ “hockey”)
i = /i:/ (“ “ “people” or even”)
l = /l/ (“ “ “language”)
m = /m/ (“ “ “mother”)
n = /n/ (“ “ “never”)
o = /o7/ (“ “ “because”, but it’s a short “o”)
p = /p/ (“ “ “pen”)
q = /kw/ (“ “ “quality”)
r = /r\/ (it’s pronunciation is in the Latin way)
s = /s/ (“ “ “sand”)
š (or sh) = /S/ (“ “ “shower”)
t = /t/ (“ “ “taste”)
u = /u:/ (“ “ “foot”)
v = /v/ (“ “ “villa”)
x = /ks/ (“ “ “excuse”)
y = /j/ (“ “ “yellow”)
w = /w/ (“ “ “wide”)
z = /z/ (“ “ “zero”)

“Y” + “i” (yi) is pronounced like “yoo” when it follows a consonant; ex.: bilyi (recent) pronunc. beelyoo; whereas eyi (inattentive) pronunc. éyee.

ACCENT


The accent is always on the penultimate syllable, and it can be on “u” or “i” but never on “y” or “w” (short vowels).

EXERCISE 1.1

Write the following words with Xsampa letters and transcribe the accent putting it on the right vowel (ex.: kaya (approval) = kà:ja):
zirya (jewel), abya (forgiveness), dunyi (slanted), čoka (dog), brya (bundle), layba (permission), gwasa (broth), tawta (effort), deša (dip, dive), haša (rheumatism), myaša (imprudence, unwariness), šâ (lake), šai (slowly), swa (veil), waka (shout), rawma (seasoning, flavouring), fya (star), myâ (ravine, gorge), fia (silk).


WORDS


Words are always easy and short; in fact most of them are composed by only 2 syllables.

NOUN


Nouns always end with –a.

PLURAL


You need only to add –s to the word; ex: mega (house), becomes megas (houses).

The "SURROUNDING"


The “surrounding” of nouns is constituted by the other elements of the language: adjectives, adverbs. Words that are part of the “surrounding” (adjectives, adverbs and every word that is not a noun neither a verb) have the same root of the noun, but always end with –i.
The adjective always precedes the noun; ex.: mami mega (a big house), and always remains singular when noun is plural (ex.: mami megas, big houses).

ARTICLE and FEMININE


The article doesn’t exist in the Lara language.
When specification of the feminine gender is required, you only need to place va- before the word; ex: hada (servant) becomes va-hada (she) servant.


EXERCISE 1.2

Using the roots in brackets, translate the following words:

black (kuf-) eyes (ne-); stormy (brom-) sea (tal-); marine storms; poisonous (kunk-) snake (viss-); frozen (ku-) rivers (š-) and (in Lara = “i”) lakes (ša-); likeable (gog-) persons (d-); the female cat (min-) and the mouse (klek-); an elegant (star-) gentleman (pi-); some sincere (dil-) men (pe-) and a woman (ven-); a true (drim-) friend (tov-); the famous (liss-) singer(female)(bal-).


AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE


In order to have the diminutive, you add –la at the end of the noun; ex: kira (hand) becomes kirala little hand (pay attention to the accent, you read kiràla), whereas you add –li at the end of the adjective; ex: grumi (old (man)) becomes grumili little old (man); read: grumìli.
You have the augmentative adding –ma to the noun and –mi to the adjective.

CONSTRUCTABLE WORDS


In conclusion to the WORDS chapter, you will notice that sometimes you can’t find some adjectives or verbs in the dictionary. Very often it’s really easy to obtain them simply adding the correct suffix to the noun root.
Also many constructable words are absent, like “profession” words and “provenance” or “destination” words. The former are intended to be the one who (and in Lara is ka) does or makes the thing/action defined by any root. An example is: to obtain the word frame-maker (not present in the dictionary) you only need to add ka (=the one who..) to the correspondent noun or verb (in this case: liba = frame) and obtain libaka = frame-maker.
The provenance/destination words instead define the physical place or the abstract concept where the action takes place or where people, objects are collected or live, and are defined by the root. You obtain that kind of word adding -pa (from upa : place) at the end of the word in question (ex.: matra study, becomes matrapa = university). When you want to create a new provenance/destination word, you always have to pay attention that the word isn’t yet in the dictionary or if the new one could be confused with other words with a different meaning.


EXERCISE 1.3

Translate the following examples consulting the mini-dictionary you can find at the end of the lesson:
1) A big pot (augment.); 2) the woodstore and the little wood (piece of); 3) the olive-grove and (in front of a vowel = in) the little hill; 4) regal persons and refined portrait-painters; 5) A huge beast! (augment.); 6) particular sensations; 7) hawks and little birds (diminut.); 8) grilled little onions (diminut.); 9) a perfect translation and... a few mistakes?


Mini-Dictionary


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beast = troka
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bigness = smaka
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bird = vya
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few = loi
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grill, grid = skufa
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hawk= mivya
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hill = pyuka
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king = dia
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little, small = ili
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mistake = missa
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olive(-tree) = duyda
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onion = vuva
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particular = sti
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perfection = snaba
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person = dya
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portrait = pafa
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pot = šava
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refined = niri
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sensation = meda
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translation = bifra
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wood = kolka
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Lesson n. 2 will be a little more demanding and will concern the personal pronouns, the "directions" (prepostions) and initial basics about verbs. Moreover there you'll find solutions to the exercises of lesson n.1.